Campaign Archive: (Feb 05 to present)
1. Create a deadline for action Ban the sale of incandescents by specific dates Ban 60W + 100W incandescents first (bayonet + screw)
Ban other incandescent designs later
2. Remove the price advantage of incandescents Increase the cost of incandescent light bulbs
Reduce the sales tax (VAT) on CFLs from 17.5% to 5%
3. Help the poor
Help the poor to replace their incandescents Help the poor to save money on their energy bills
4. Encourage responsible recycling
Encourage the responsible recycling of CFLs Encourage fair + adequate funding for recycling Encourage discussions amongst recycling stakeholders
5. Encourage + strengthen supporting legislation
Include light bulbs in the EU's Eco Directive Explain the pros + cons of the EU's RoHS Directive
6. Propose appriopriate exemptions Make the case for appropriate medical and specialist exemptions
7. Encourage continued innovation
Propose that technology neutral "watts per lumen"
criteria should be included in ban legislation
Propose "watts per lumen per m2" as further criteria
Highlight promising technologies as they emerge
8. Encourage energy efficiency and conservation
Explain the benefits of greater energy efficiency Explain the benefits of turning things off Accelerate the uptake of available technologies
9. Use LEDs to set energy performance standards
LEDs offer a 90% energy saving CFLs offer a 65-80% energy saving High efficiency incandescents offer a 25% saving Incandescents offer 0% energy saving
Banning incandescent light bulbs would...
Save 2 to 5 Million tonnes of CO2 per year in the UK
Save 23 to 53 Million tonnes of CO2 per year in the EU
Global Energy Use:
BBC "Green Room" 3 Feb 06
Light bulbs: Not such a bright idea
BBC "Green Room" 21 April 06
Shedding light on call to ban bulb
BBC "Green Room" 20 Oct 06
Where have all the leaders gone?
BBC article 29 Jun 06 Lighting the key to energy saving
IEA : Lights Labour Lost report
BBC article 2 Nov 06 Bulbs must be efficient by 2009
BBC "Green Room" 19 Jan 07 The need for ambition + imagination
Stern Review: Summary
Guardian article 1 Feb 07 Should I replace incandescents now?
Worldwatch: Effects of WEEE Directive
BBC article 31 Jan 07 Plan to ban light bulbs... in California
Nine MSN article 20 Feb 07 Plan to ban light bulbs... in Australia
BBC article 20 Feb 07 Australia pulls plug on old bulbs
Courier Mail article 21 Feb 07 See the light Turnbull
EurActiv article 21 Feb 07 How many EU members does it take to change a light bulb?
Guardian article 22 Feb 07 Should we ban these bulbs?
Scotsman article 24 Feb 07 How many light bulbs does it take
to change the world?
Daily Mail article 10 Mar 07 EU switches off our old light bulbs
BBC "Green Room" 16 July 07 Sex sells, but at what cost?
The Guardian article 27 Sept 07 UK to phase out 150W, 100W + 60W bulbs
The Guardian article 27 Sept 07
Ban The Bulb?
International Light Bulb Campaigns 18 Seconds (US)
Greenpeace India : BTB petition (India)
www.banthebulb.co.uk (UK: unaffiliated)
Campaigns One Watt Initiative (IEA)
One Billion Bulbs (US)
Big Green Switch (UK)
Eco Portal Eco Earth Info (US)
References Homestayfinder: How CFLs work MPs' Letters: EU light bulb rules Wikipedia: Ozone Depletion
EU: Kyoto Protocol
Lighting Industry Federation
>LIF: Lamp Guide 2001 pdf
UK Climate Change Programme
>UK CCP: Review pdf
UK Market Transformation Programme
ECCP Report 2001 pdf
European Lamp Companies Federation
DTI: WEEE Directive
Energy Saving Trust
GE: Soft White Dimmable CFLs
Cubans + Jamaicans hand out free CFLs
Energy Saving Trust
Low energy fittings
Save Your 20%
Customer Utility Services
Light bulb suppliers
Direct Trade Supplies
Light Rabbit : Commercial
AVR LED Track Lighting
Synergy Lighting USA (USA)
Express Light Bulbs
LED Light Bulbs
LED Lighting Supplier
eco LED Light
LED Eco Lights
Light Bulb Planet
First Light Direct
Lamps On Line
Bright Green Technology (signs)
Eco Friendly Light Bulbs
Go Green Lights (UK)
Energy Saving World (UK)
Light Bulbs Direct (UK)
Better Generation (UK)
Efficient Light (UK)
The Bulbman (US)
LED Online [LEDs] (UK)
OptoSource [LEDs] (UK)
CyberLux [LEDs] (US)
Androv Medical (UK)
The Light Bulb (UK)
Solar Power Centre (UK)
Intelligent Energy Solutions (UK)
Solar Insiders (UK)
Solar Gadget Store (UK)
Select Solar Panels (UK)
Energy Saving Advice
Conserve Energy (UK)
Intelligent Energy Solutions (UK)
Solar Security Solutions (UK)
Energy Company Advice
Good Energy Shop (UK)
Home Energy Generation / Storage
Cyber Energy (UK)
Low carbon technology sites
The Solar Centre (UK)
Price comparison sites
Business Electricity Prices (UK)
Business Gas Prices (UK)
USwitch: Business Energy (UK)
Home Advisory Service (UK)
UK Power (UK)
Business Gas (UK) Business Electricity (UK)
Solar Price Comparison Services
Talk Solar Panels (UK)
Talk Solar Boilers (UK)
Solar Quote Provider (UK)
Lux Outdoor Ligting (UK)
The Eco Experts (UK)
Light bulb history
1809 Humphrey Davy (Arc lamp) 1820 Warren De la Rue (vacuum + wire) 1879 Edison and Swan (carbon + cotton) 1880 Edison (carbon + bamboo) 1898 Karl Auer (osmium) 1903 Siemens/Halske (tantalum) 1906 to 10 GEC/William Coolidge (tungsten)
Fluorescent light and lamp history
1857 Becquerel (fluorescence) 1901 Cooper Hewitt (mercury vapour lamp) 1934 Germer (high pressure lamp) 1970s Anderson + Hollister (electrodeless) 1976 Edward Hammer (spiral lamp)
Mercury + Fluorescent Lights
Michigan Dept. of Env. Quality
Energy Efficiency Advice
EU Energy Label
Insulation + Windows
Find recommended products (UK)
Generate your own energy
Solar water heating
Small scale wind
Small scale hydro
The Guardian 7 Dec 05
BBC News Online 'Green Room' 3 Feb 06
BBC Radio 4 'Broadcasting House' 5 Feb 06
Austrian Broadcasting Corp. 7 Feb 06
BBC Radio Wales 8 Feb 06
BBC News Online 8 Feb 06
The Hindustan Times editorial
The Guardian "Campaign O.T.W. " 21 Feb 06
BBC Radio Essex 22 Feb 06
Interesting energy ideas...
Option 10 (UK)
Light Up The World (Can)
Downshifting Path (UK)
Cent. for Alt. Tech. (Wales)
Patio Heaters Are Evil (UK)
Friends of the Earth Greenpeace International Natural Resources Defense Council New Economics Foundation WWF
Renewable Energy Businesses
Climate Stability 2005
UK Energy Research Centre
National Audit Office > report
Alternative Energy Blog
Sierra Club Scoop
© matt prescott
Tuesday, July 08, 2014
Phoebus (Lighting Industry) Cartel : 1924 - 1939During a recent BBC documentary "The Man Who Made Us Spend" which was about the tactics used by companies to help drive modern-day consumerism, Ban The Bulb was surprised to learn of the Phoebus Cartel which was founded by Osram, Philips and General Electric, amongst others, as a way reducing the useful life expectancy of their light bulbs from 2500 hours to 1000 hours and boosting sales.
This type of in-built obsolescence can still be found in many other consumer products ranging from cars, mobile phones and silicon chips, so the actions of this cartel should still act as a cautionary tale for regulators established to protect consumers or the environment.
Below is the entry from Wikipedia which explains how this cartel succeeded in shortening the lifespan of their products as a way of making them obsolete more quickly and profitably.
The Phoebus Cartel
The Phoebus cartel was a cartel of, among others, Osram, Philips and General Electric from December 23, 1924, until 1939 that existed to control the manufacture and sale of light bulbs.
The cartel is an important step in the history of the global economy because it engaged in large-scale planned obsolescence. It reduced competition in the light bulb industry for almost twenty years, and has been accused of preventing technological advances that would have produced longer-lasting light bulbs. Phoebus was a Swiss corporation named "Phoebus S.A. Compagnie Industrielle pour le Développement de l'Éclairage".The Phoebus cartel was a cartel of, among others, Osram, Philips and General Electric from December 23, 1924, until 1939 that existed to control the manufacture and sale of light bulbs.
The cartel is an important step in the history of the global economy because it engaged in large-scale planned obsolescence. It reduced competition in the light bulb industry for almost twenty years, and has been accused of preventing technological advances that would have produced longer-lasting light bulbs. Phoebus was a Swiss corporation named "Phoebus S.A. Compagnie Industrielle pour le Développement de l'Éclairage".
Osram, Philips, Tungsram, Associated Electrical Industries, ELIN, Compagnie des Lampes, International General Electric, and the GE Overseas Group were members of the Phoebus cartel, holding shares in the Swiss corporation proportional to their lamp sales.
In 1921 a precursor organisation was founded by Osram, the "Internationale Glühlampen Preisvereinigung". When Philips and other manufacturers were entering the American market, General Electric reacted by setting up the "International General Electric Company" in Paris. Both organisations co-ordinated the trading of patents and market penetration. Increasing international competition led to negotiations between all the major companies to control and restrict their respective activities in order not to interfere in each other's spheres.
The cartel was a convenient way to lower costs and worked to standardise the life expectancy of light bulbs at 1000 hours,while at the same time raising prices without fear of competition. Members' bulbs were regularly tested and fines were levied for bulbs that lasted more than 1000 hours. A 1929 table lists exactly how many Swiss francs had to be paid, depending on the exceeding hours of lifetime. This was not public knowledge at the time, and the cartel could point to standardization of light bulbs as an alternative rationale for the organization.
The cartel claimed that 1000 hours was a reasonable optimum life expectancy for most bulbs, and that a longer lifetime could be obtained only at the expense of efficiency, since progressively more heat and less light is obtained, resulting in wasted electricity.
The Phoebus Cartel divided the world’s lamp markets into three categories:
In the late 1920s a Swedish-Danish-Norwegian union of companies (the North European Luma Co-op Society) began planning an independent manufacturing centre. Economic and legal threats by Phoebus did not achieve the desired effect, and in 1931 the Scandinavians produced and sold lamps at a considerably lower price than Phoebus.
The original Phoebus agreement was intended to expire in 1955; however, World War II greatly disrupted the operation of the cartel.
Posted 9:56 AM by Matt Prescott